In this division, Ptolemy, general a… [37], At the wedding of Cleopatra, whom Philip fell in love with and married, she being much too young for him, her uncle Attalus in his drink desired the Macedonians would implore the gods to give them a lawful successor to the kingdom by his niece. [203] His delusions of grandeur are readily visible in his will and in his desire to conquer the world,[148] in as much as he is by various sources described as having boundless ambition,[204][205] an epithet, the meaning of which has descended into an historical cliché. They refused to be sent away and criticized his adoption of Persian customs and dress and the introduction of Persian officers and soldiers into Macedonian units. When Alexander learned about this, he was furious. His troops misunderstood his intention and mutinied at the town of Opis. Alexander followed this advice, but the route turned to be unfavorable because of swampy terrain. [20], During his youth, Alexander was also acquainted with Persian exiles at the Macedonian court, who received the protection of Philip II for several years as they opposed Artaxerxes III. Greek astronomical treatise) and Paulisa Siddhanta texts depict the influence of Greek astronomical ideas on Indian astronomy. Instead, they supported Alexander's half-brother Philip Arrhidaeus. For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty thousand horsemen, two hundred thousand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six thousand war elephants. [182] The Macedonian phalanx, armed with the sarissa, a spear 6 metres (20 ft) long, had been developed and perfected by Philip II through rigorous training, and Alexander used its speed and manoeuvrability to great effect against larger but more disparate[clarification needed] Persian forces. [55] The Macedonians marched into the country of the Triballi, and defeated their army near the Lyginus river[56] (a tributary of the Danube). [33] At Corinth, Philip established a "Hellenic Alliance" (modelled on the old anti-Persian alliance of the Greco-Persian Wars), which included most Greek city-states except Sparta. Around AD 200, Emperor Septimius Severus closed Alexander's tomb to the public. The Thracian Maedi revolted against macedonia and Alexander reacted by defeated them gloriously and founding a city. [5] It was suggested that he entered Babylon via the Royal Gate, in the western wall, where he would face to the east. [12] According to the ancient Greek biographer Plutarch, on the eve of the consummation of her marriage to Philip, Olympias dreamed that her womb was struck by a thunderbolt that caused a flame to spread "far and wide" before dying away. [101], Alexander viewed Bessus as a usurper and set out to defeat him. [75][76] The men of military age were massacred and the women and children sold into slavery. [82] During his stay in Egypt, he founded Alexandria-by-Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom after his death. Alexander then faced the Assakenoi, who fought against him from the strongholds of Massaga, Ora and Aornos. Lv 7. Philip was then named Hegemon (often translated as "Supreme Commander") of this league (known by modern scholars as the League of Corinth), and announced his plans to attack the Persian Empire. The famous encounter between Alexander and Diogenes the Cynic occurred during Alexander's stay in Corinth. [133] Meanwhile, upon his return to Persia, Alexander learned that guards of the tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae had desecrated it, and swiftly executed them. Answers (1) Breelle June 12, 8:18 PM. The end of Thebes cowed Athens, leaving all of Greece temporarily at peace. [201], Alexander was erudite and patronized both arts and sciences. [45][47][50], News of Philip's death roused many states into revolt, including Thebes, Athens, Thessaly, and the Thracian tribes north of Macedon. [99] He claimed that, while dying, Darius had named him as his successor to the Achaemenid throne. He then continued south towards the Peloponnese. [175][198] His unique abilities were further demonstrated by the inability of any of his generals to unite Macedonia and retain the Empire after his death—only Alexander had the ability to do so. [189], Alexander's legacy extended beyond his military conquests. [89] During his stay a fire broke out in the eastern palace of Xerxes I and spread to the rest of the city. [191] Lysippos had often used the contrapposto sculptural scheme to portray Alexander and other characters such as Apoxyomenos, Hermes and Eros. On the subsequent advance of the Macedonian king, Taxiles accompanied him with a force of 5,000 men and took part in the battle of the Hydaspes River. His father was away to fight a war in persia and Alexander was supposed to rule in his absence. How old was Alexander the Great when he died? [40] Accordingly, Alexander returned to Macedon after six months due to the efforts of a family friend, Demaratus, who mediated between the two parties. The successor states that emerged were, at least initially, dominant forces, and these 300 years are often referred to as the Hellenistic period. [138] Back in Babylon, Alexander planned a series of new campaigns, beginning with an invasion of Arabia, but he would not have a chance to realize them, as he died shortly after Hephaestion. [219][220], Alexander also had a close relationship with his friend, general, and bodyguard Hephaestion, the son of a Macedonian noble. He never lost a battle, despite typically being outnumbered. [8] He did not flinch as he burnt to the astonishment of those who watched. [29] It has been discussed that Alexander had structural neck deformities and oculomotor deficits,[30] and this could be associated with Klippel–Feil syndrome, a rare congenital scoliotic disorder. Some believe that as Alexander fell ill in his final days, he suffered from progressive epidural spinal cord compression, which left him quadriplegic. Before his death, Alexander wanted to explore more of the coast of his own land to expand maritime trade. But, the new analysis suggests doctors may have jumped the gun in pronouncing his death; instead, experts now say he likely lay paralyzed - not dead - for another six days before really passing away. English. [189] However, Ogden calculates that Alexander, who impregnated his partners thrice in eight years, had a higher matrimonial record than his father at the same age. He was a dipsomaniac. [49], Attalus was at that time corresponding with Demosthenes, regarding the possibility of defecting to Athens. In return for teaching Alexander, Philip agreed to rebuild Aristotle's hometown of Stageira, which Philip had razed, and to repopulate it by buying and freeing the ex-citizens who were slaves, or pardoning those who were in exile. These general knowledge questions are very … Il y a 1 décennie. [10] Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his principal wife for some time, likely because she gave birth to Alexander. [20] It was also noted that the absence of the signature fever curve of Plasmodium falciparum (the expected parasite, given Alexander's travel history) diminishes the possibility of malaria. On the way, he fell ill and it took him to his death bed. [78] After three unsuccessful assaults, the stronghold fell, but not before Alexander had received a serious shoulder wound. In the aftermath of Massaga and Ora, numerous Assakenians fled to the fortress of Aornos. In this context, Perdiccas was given the power to divide the territories of Alexander between his generals. [147], The strongest argument against the poison theory is the fact that twelve days passed between the start of his illness and his death; such long-acting poisons were probably not available. Alexander has figured in both high and popular culture beginning in his own era to the present day. In late 322 or early 321 BC Ptolemy diverted the body to Egypt where it was interred in Memphis, Egypt. In February 323 BC, Alexander ordered his armies to prepare for the march to Babylon. Sit back, relax, and grab a snack and help us go through the different theories of how he died and what might have happened. After a long pause due to an illness, he marched on towards Syria. Left to fight alone, they were defeated. But, the new analysis suggests doctors may have jumped the gun in pronouncing his death; instead, experts now say he likely lay paralyzed - not dead - for another six days before really passing away. His chroniclers recorded valuable information about the areas through which he marched, while the Greeks themselves got a sense of belonging to a world beyond the Mediterranean. [13], On the day Alexander was born, Philip was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of Chalcidice. Eventually, the two sides reconciled, and after the birth of Alexander IV, he and Philip III were appointed joint kings, albeit in name only. There are several running theories regarding how he died and none of them have been proven to be true. He also mentions that this was the only unsuccessful project of Alexander. [16], When Alexander was ten years old, a trader from Thessaly brought Philip a horse, which he offered to sell for thirteen talents. [142], Given the propensity of the Macedonian aristocracy to assassination,[145] foul play featured in multiple accounts of his death. Mcq Added by: Rashid Mehmood. Alexander also ordered the murder of Attalus,[48] who was in command of the advance guard of the army in Asia Minor and Cleopatra's uncle. [31] His physical deformities and symptoms leading up to his death are what lead experts to believe this. Log in. This led Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it had burnt down because Artemis was away, attending the birth of Alexander. The death of Alexander the Great and subsequent related events have been the subjects of debates. [70] At the ancient Phrygian capital of Gordium, Alexander "undid" the hitherto unsolvable Gordian Knot, a feat said to await the future "king of Asia". [18], Other popular theories contend that Alexander either died of malaria or was poisoned. ", In 337 BC, Alexander fled Macedon with his mother, dropping her off with her brother, King Alexander I of Epirus in Dodona, capital of the Molossians. recent questions recent answers. Sometime after the wedding, Philip is said to have seen himself, in a dream, securing his wife's womb with a seal engraved with a lion's image. Subsequently, however, the two rivals were reconciled by the personal mediation of Alexander; and Taxiles, after having contributed zealously to the equipment of the fleet on the Hydaspes, was entrusted by the king with the government of the whole territory between that river and the Indus. The campaign took Alexander through Media, Parthia, Aria (West Afghanistan), Drangiana, Arachosia (South and Central Afghanistan), Bactria (North and Central Afghanistan), and Scythia. Alexander responded quickly, driving them from their territory. Alexander proceeded to take possession of Syria, and most of the coast of the Levant. When Philip heard of this, he stopped the negotiations and scolded Alexander for wishing to marry the daughter of a Carian, explaining that he wanted a better bride for him. Any other answer would cause the mermaid to turn into a raging Gorgon who would drag the ship to the bottom of the sea, all hands aboard. Join now. Even as he watched the city burn, Alexander immediately began to regret his decision. A 1998 article in the New England Journal of Medicine attributed his death to typhoid fever complicated by bowel perforation and ascending paralysis. Alexander's forces destroyed the … [182], In his first battle in Asia, at Granicus, Alexander used only a small part of his forces, perhaps 13,000 infantry with 5,000 cavalry, against a much larger Persian force of 40,000. [250] On the Silk Road trade routes, Hellenistic culture hybridized with Iranian and Buddhist cultures. The question of what, or who, killed the Macedonian king has never been answered successfully. how old was alexander the great when he fought his first battle? Campaigning against the Greek city of Perinthus, Alexander is reported to have saved his father's life. [112] Alexander sent back vast sums from his conquest, which stimulated the economy and increased trade across his empire. Plutarch's account is that roughly 14 days before his death, Alexander entertained admiral Nearchus, and spent the night and next day drinking with Medius of Larissa. Omphis (Indian name Ambhi), the ruler of Taxila, whose kingdom extended from the Indus to the Hydaspes (Jhelum), complied, but the chieftains of some hill clans, including the Aspasioi and Assakenoi sections of the Kambojas (known in Indian texts also as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas), refused to submit. When "his engineers pointed out to him that because of the height of the mound it would be impossible... this encouraged Alexander all the more to make the [91] Curtius claims that Alexander did not regret his decision until the next morning. Concerned that other Greek states might intervene, Alexander made it look as though he was preparing to attack Illyria instead. [86] He sent the bulk of his army to the Persian ceremonial capital of Persepolis via the Persian Royal Road. He was seventy-three years of age at that time. Though advised to use diplomacy, Alexander mustered 3,000 Macedonian cavalry and rode south towards Thessaly. [236], Over the course of his conquests, Alexander founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most of them east of the Tigris. [68] Alexander left the government of Caria to a member of the Hecatomnid dynasty, Ada, who adopted Alexander. Some believe he was poisoned while others speculate that he died from a disease such as malaria, typhoid fever, liver failure or even a lung infection. Aelian writes of Alexander's visit to Troy where "Alexander garlanded the tomb of Achilles, and Hephaestion that of Patroclus, the latter hinting that he was a beloved of Alexander, in just the same way as Patroclus was of Achilles. [185], When faced with opponents who used unfamiliar fighting techniques, such as in Central Asia and India, Alexander adapted his forces to his opponents' style. [16] Contemporaries who wrote accounts of his life included Alexander's campaign historian Callisthenes; Alexander's generals Ptolemy and Nearchus; Aristobulus, a junior officer on the campaigns; and Onesicritus, Alexander's chief helmsman. Alexander was the first to break the Theban lines, followed by Philip's generals. [18], When Alexander was 13, Philip began to search for a tutor, and considered such academics as Isocrates and Speusippus, the latter offering to resign from his stewardship of the Academy to take up the post. When Alexander asked Diogenes what he could do for him, the philosopher disdainfully asked Alexander to stand a little to the side, as he was blocking the sunlight. Philip then returned to Elatea, sending a final offer of peace to Athens and Thebes, who both rejected it. His beard was scanty, and he stood out against his hirsute Macedonian barons by going clean-shaven. Alexander the Great became king after his father, King Phillip II, died. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, 5.31. [148][157], Alexander's sexuality has been the subject of speculation and controversy in modern times. Still occupied in Thrace, he ordered Alexander to muster an army for a campaign in southern Greece. [86], From Babylon, Alexander went to Susa, one of the Achaemenid capitals, and captured its treasury. [73] He offered a peace treaty that included the lands he had already lost, and a ransom of 10,000 talents for his family. [183] Alexander also recognized the potential for disunity among his diverse army, which employed various languages and weapons. The satrapies handed out by Perdiccas at the Partition of Babylon became power bases each general used to bid for power. In popular culture, the British heavy metal band Iron Maiden included a song titled "Alexander the Great" on their 1986 album Somewhere in Time. Background and History. [51], Alexander stopped at Thermopylae, where he was recognized as the leader of the Amphictyonic League before heading south to Corinth. [228], Green argues that there is little evidence in ancient sources that Alexander had much carnal interest in women; he did not produce an heir until the very end of his life. Alexander kills Cleitus, painting by André Castaigne 1898–1899. [40] He continued to Illyria,[40] where he sought refuge with one or more Illyrian kings, perhaps with Glaukias, and was treated as a guest, despite having defeated them in battle a few years before. After the assassination of Perdiccas in 321 BC, Macedonian unity collapsed, and 40 years of war between "The Successors" (Diadochi) ensued before the Hellenistic world settled into four stable power blocs: Ptolemaic Egypt, Seleucid Mesopotamia and Central Asia, Attalid Anatolia, and Antigonid Macedon. He eventually turned back at the demand of his homesick troops, dying in Babylon in 323 BC, the city that he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. 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